Learn Pashto: First lesson (پښتو زده کړه: لومړی درس)

Learn Pashto: First lesson (پښتو زده کړه: لومړی درس)

ښې چارې. ستړي مشئ.


(Khe chare. Stari ma shey)
د پښتو درس ته په خیر راغلئ.
(Da Pakhto dars ta pa khair raghley)
زما نوم ګل خان دی او تاسې سره په پښتو خبرې کوم.
(Zama noom Gul Khan dai aw tase sara pa Pakhto khabare kom)
ځینې خلک وايي چې ګل زما اول او خان دویم نوم دی.
(Zine khalk wayee che Gul zama awal aw Khan dowayam noom dai)
زه د افغانستان د کونړ ولایت یم.
(Za da Afghanistan da Kunar walayat yam)
زما عمر پنځه ویشت کاله دی.
(Zama oomar pinza weesht kala dai)
ته د کوم ځای یې وروره / خورې؟
(Ta da kom zaye ye wrora / khore?)

  

Vocabulary (لغتونه)
درس (dars): lesson
زده کړه (zda kra) (verb: زده کول [zda kawal]: learning
ښې (khey) OR ښه (kha): good
چارې (chare) [singular: چاره (chara)]: affairs
ستړي (stari) [singular: ستړی (starai): tired
مشئ (ma shey) [to one person: مه شې (ma she): be not
پښتو (Pakhtu): Pashto
په خیر (pa khair): wel
راغلئ (raghley): come
زما (zama): my
نوم (noom): name
دی (dai): is
او (aw): and
تاسې (tase) OR تاسو (taso): you
سره (sara): with
خبرې کوم (khabare kom): speaking
ځینې (zine): some
خلک (khalk): people
وايي (wayee): say
چې (che): that
اول (awal): first
دویم (dowayam): second
زه (za): I
افغانستان (Afghanistan): Afghanistan
د (da): of
کونړ (Kunar): Kunar
ولایت (walayat): province
یم (yam): am
عمر (oomar): age
پنځه ویشت (pinza weesht): twenty five
ته (ta): you
کوم (kom): which
ځای (zaye): place
یې (ye): are
وروره (ورور) (wrora (wror)): brother
خورې (خور) (khore (khor)): sister


Translation of the conversation
Hello. Hope you are good.
Welcome to the Pashto lesson.
My name is Gul Khan and I speak Pashto with you.
Some people say that Gul is my first and Khan second name.
I am from Kunar province of Afghanistan.
My age is 25 years (OR: I am 25 years old)
Where are you from brother / sister?


Grammar
In Pashto, a verb almost always comes at the end of the sentence. For example:
زه د افغانستان یم (za da Afghanistan yam): I am from Afghanistan
ستا نوم څه دی؟ (sta noom sa dai): What is your name?
Personal pronoun comes at the start. For example:
زه د افغانستان یم (za da Afghanistan yam): I am from Afghanistan
ستا نوم څه دی؟ (sta noom sa dai): What is your name?
Pronouns can be used with verbs in the following manner. We take ‘to see’ (لیدل):
زه (za): I وینم (weenam): see
ته (ta): you وینې (weene): see
تاسې (tase): you وینئ (weeney): see (for more than one people)
هغه (hagha): he/she ویني (weeni): sees
مونږ (mong): we وینو (weenoo): see
هغوی (haghwey): they ویني (weeni) sees


یاګانې (ya’s)
In Pashto we use 5 different ya’s (یاګانې). They are following: ی (yay), ي (yi), ې (ye), ۍ (yey), ئ (yey). The last two ya’s have the same sound, but are used differently in writing. This is the most difficult and confusing part of the Pashto grammar. Because of the lack of government interest and lack of education, a vast majority of native Pashtuns don’t know how to properly use Pashto ya’s. Even when you read Pashto newspapers, magazines, and go on websites, you will find abundant ya mistakes. One even gets more confused when one reads two or three articles on one website and each of them use the ya’s in a different way. I will explain them one by one.


ی (yay)
The best way to learn their use is to recognize each ya’s sound. This ya is used with words that don’t need any emphasis at the ya. These words are mostly singular nouns. For example: سړی (sarai: man); لرګی (largai: wood); مردکی (mardakai: bullet); ژمی (zhamai: winter); کوچی (kochai: nomad); کرزی (karzai: karzai); ماښامی (makhamai: evening). Note: In Khyber Pashtunkhwa, the Urdu ے is used instead of ی.
Verbs that follow these and any singular noun also should be singular and thus they end with this ya. For example:
سړی راغلی دی (sarai raghalai dai): The man has come.
ما د هغه کمپیوټر لیدلی دی (ma da hagha computer leedalai dai): I have seen his computer.


ي (yi)
This ya has a slight emphasis and is used to make some of the singular nouns that end with ی plural. For example: سړی (sarai: man) = سړي (sari: men); لرګی (largai: wood = لرګي (largi: woods); ماښامی (makhamai: evening) = ماښامي (makhami: evenings). But be careful that all singular words are not made plural this way. For example, the plural for کرزی (Karzai) is کرزیان (Karzian: Karzais) and کوچی (Kochai: nomad) is کوچیان (Kochian: Kochis). There are even more types of plurals which will be discussed in other lessons.
However, whatever type of plural the noun is, the verb should be plural and with this ya. For example:
سړي راغلی دي (sari raghalai di): The men have come.
ما د هغوی کمپیوټرونه لیدلي دي (ma da haghwey computeroona leedali di): I have seen their computers.
This ya is also used when a singular noun has done something in the perfect tense. For example:
سړي اوبه څښلې دي (sari aoba sakhale di): The man has drunk the water.
هلک منډې پوره کړې دي (halak mande poora kare di): The boy has completed the runs.
Note: in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, they use ی instead of ي. There is no difference in the rest of the three ya’s.


ې (ye)
This ya has a descending sound. It makes some masculine words feminine and makes some feminine singular nouns plural. But its function is not limited to that. For example: سړې (sarye: cool); ښځې (khazye: women; wives [singular: ښځه (khaza: woman; wife]); پاڼې (paaney: petals; pages [singular: پاڼه (paana: petal, page]).
The verb for a feminine noun that ends with ya must end with this ya. For example:
جلۍ راغلې ده (jaley raghaley da): The girl has come.
ښځې وتښتېدې (khazey watakhtedey): The women fled.


ۍ (yey), and ئ (yey)
Both of these ya’s have the same sound. The second is only used in imperative (امریه) sentences. For example:
کور ته لاړ شئ (kor ta laar shey): Go home (for more than one people).
دلته مه کینئ (dalta ma keney): Don’t sit here.
In all other words with the same sound of ya comes the firs one (ۍ). For example: جلۍ (jaley: girl); رسۍ (rasey: rope); مرغۍ (marghey: bird); سهارنۍ (saharaney: of the morning). Many of these words remain the same when made plural, their verbs change to plurals. Thus, the verb for a singular word with this ya is ده (da) and دي (di) for plurals. For example:
مرغۍ ناسته ده (marghey nasta da: The bird is sitting).
رسۍ په غاړو کې دي (rasey pa gara ke di: the ropes are around necks).
Words that get different forms of plurals, get ي (the second in this list). For example:
جونې ګډېږي (joney gadegi): The girls are dancing.
But the verb ends with ې (the third in this list) if the tense is past. For example:
جونې ګډېدې، پټې پټې خندېدې (joney gadedey, patey patey khandedey): The girls were dancing, hiding their giggling.


Greetings
ښې چارې (Khe chare: for more than one persons) and ښه چارې (kha chare: for one person)
This is a typical Pashto greeting. When I was a young boy, I heard only this greeting. But with the widespread ‘jihadization’ during the anti-Russian jihad in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Arab culture was injected and forced on everybody and سلام (salam) or سلام علیکم (salam alaikom) become a routine greeting. When I was studying in a madrassa in Pakistan, our mullah ordered us not to allow anybody in our families to say ‘kha chare.’ He said, it means: ‘ go on four’ (become an animal). At that time I believed in what he said. But later when I left the madrassa and did independent study, and read literature, I found that it was proper greeting with a nice meaning. The word چاره (chara = singular) or چارې (chare = plural) though is very common these days and means ‘affair’ or ‘affairs.’ For example: د بهرنیو چارو وزارت (da bahranayo charo wazarat: Ministry of the Foreign Affairs). But the greeting ‘kha chare’, which means ‘I hope you are good/well’ can only be heard in rural areas. But one thing is of note, that some nationalists who are struggling to revive Pashto culture through social media and other activities, use this greeting a lot these days.
ستړي مشئ( Stari ma shey: don’t be tired = for more than two persons; ستړی مشې (starai ma she = for one man; and ستړې مشې (starey ma shey = for one woman) is a widely used greeting everywhere. Apart from the literal meaning, it is an expression to say that you are welcome and that your tiredness will fade with the hospitality and the warm welcome that you will see.
په خیر راغلې (pa khair raghle = for one person, man or woman) and په خیر راغلئ (pa khair raghley = for more than one person) is also an welcoming greeting. It is used everywhere and can be used on any occasion, but more commonly on formal occasions.


Gul Khan and Pashto (ګل خان او پښتو)
Gul Khan is a typical Pashtun name. It is used in lot of literature and there is a Pashto novel with this name. There is still no formal system of family names in Afghanistan or Pakistan. And Khan is not a family name. Many people just use one name and some may add Khan to make it two but they don’t know if one of them is first and the other second name. But now, as more people get educated, they use two names: one their own and one the name of their family or tribe.
The Pashtuns in the southern Afghan provinces and Baluchistan pronounce Pashto but Pashtuns from the eastern provinces of Afghanistan, the tribal areas and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa say it Pakhto.


Idiom/proverb (متل/محاوره)
په پښتو کې پوښتۍ ماتېږي
(Pa Pakhto ke pukhtey mategi)
In doing Pashto you break your ribs.
Explanation: This is said when you do something that causes you difficulties according to Pashtunwali (way of life). Because Pashtuns see Pashto not only as a language but as way of life too. If somebody has promised to do something difficult and he does it, they say: 'This person has kept his Pashto' meaning his word. But if he faces trouble in doing so and is harmed, then someone will say: 'He did his Pashto but he lost his leg. In doing Pashto you break your ribs.'

د هادي حيران صاحب د وېبپاڼي څخه په مننه
http://www.hadihairan.com/2011/06/learn-pashto-first-lesson.html


 

هيله ده چي قاموسونه په فيسبوک کي لايک کړئ